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Credit scores indicate your level of risk as a borrower. There are dozens of credit scores that use unique formulas, but each typically includes factors like payment history and amounts owed.
A credit score is a number that measures how risky you are as a borrower of money. In other words, it’s a measure of your creditworthiness, or how much financial institutions should trust you. Credit scores are calculated based on your past behavior with loans, credit cards, and other financial products.
The higher your credit scores, the lower a risk you are to lenders and the better terms you can get on your borrowing. In real world terms, this means lenders will work harder to attract people with higher credit scores. That includes offering loans and credit cards with lower interest rates, low-to-no fees and more extras, like offering gifts when you get a new credit card.
You have dozens of credit scores, not just one. You might look up a credit score and get one number, but when you apply for a loan the bank will end up with a different credit score.
For a long time, the FICO brand of credit scores was the only game in town. FICO, established by Fair Isaac Corporation, remains the main type of credit score used by lenders to evaluate the credit rating of applicants. When people talk about credit scores they’re usually talking about a FICO score. Even under the FICO brand, however, there are different types of FICO scores for different purposes. For example, if you want a loan to buy a house or a student loan, the bank may use a different type of score than if you’re applying for a credit card.
More recently, the three major credit bureaus (Equifax, Experian and TransUnion) have banded together to create another credit scoring system called VantageScore. It relies on a slightly different set of weighted criteria than FICO scores.
If you get a free credit score on your credit card statement, for example, you can usually read the fine print to find out what scoring model and credit bureau’s data they’re using.
The following sections show the criteria used to calculate FICO and VantageScores, and their relative importance in your credit scores.
Both the VantageScore 3.0 credit score range and FICO Score range are 300 to 850 for the major, current versions in use today. Higher scores are better.
Older versions of each credit scoring model, and some other types of FICO scores have different ranges. For example, the FICO 8 Bankcard score, sometimes used by banks in credit card approval decisions, ranges from 250 to 900.
This chart shows the criteria used to create FICO scores and their relative importance in your credit score.
(scores range from 300 to 850)
(scores range from 300 to 850)
Because it is the more widely used credit score, let’s look more closely at each element in the FICO score.
Your payment history accounts for 35% of your FICO scores, making it the most important component.
How much debt you’re carrying accounts for 30% of your FICO scores. This category takes into account all of your debt balances, but your credit card debt can carry the most impact here. If you carry a lot of credit card debt, your scores will suffer. This is why maxing out credit cards can quickly drop your credit scores.
Carrying a balance on multiple cards can also hurt your scores, especially if those balances are high relative to your credit limits.
How long you’ve had credit accounts for 15% of the points in your FICO scores. What’s important here is each account’s “opened” date on your credit reports. This category considers things like:
The longer you’ve had credit accounts open, the older your credit history will be and the more points you’ll earn in this category.
Opening several new accounts can bring down this average quickly. Every new account you open will also reset the time since you opened your newest account. Both of which could decrease your scores. Similarly, closing old accounts can decrease you average account age or the age of your oldest account once those accounts fall off your credit reports, potentially decreasing your scores.
Having a variety of different types of accounts shows a healthy, diverse mix of credit and makes up 10% of your credit score points. A healthy mix of credit includes accounts like credit cards (known as revolving debt), car loans and mortgage loans (known as installment debt).
Having only one type of account, say credit cards only, won’t earn you as many score points as showing that you’re able to manage and maintain a variety of account types such as a car loan or a mortgage, for example.
Your recent searches for credit are worth 10% of your credit score points. In the credit industry, an application for new credit means a “hard” inquiry on your credit report and signals that you’re actively looking for credit.
Every time you apply for a new credit card, a new hard inquiry will be added to one or more of your credit reports.
In general, the more inquiries you have, the riskier you’ll look to lenders, and the lower your credit scores will be.
Newer credit scoring models don’t treat all hard inquiries equally. If you’re shopping around for a car loan, for example, you may be requesting terms from multiple banks, who each check your credit. Credit scoring models group these inquires together so they don’t have as big an impact on your credit scores. Lenders understand this process, too.
The same grouping doesn’t happen with credit cards, though. With installment loans, like car loans or mortgages, you have the opportunity to decide whether you want to take the loan or not when you’re approved. When you apply for a credit card, the account will be open once you’re approved, so every time your credit is checked for a credit card application the hard inquiry will likely affect your credit scores.
The question of who determines a good or bad score has all sorts of incorrect answers. It’s not the credit bureaus, it’s not FICO and it’s not VantageScore. None of them use credit scores to lend money so, frankly, their opinion as to what’s good or bad isn’t terribly meaningful.
Lenders use credit scores to help predict risk, and their opinions are the only ones that matter. Every lender is going to have a slightly different definition of a “bad,” “fair,” “good,” and “excellent” credit score.
This is a credit score range breakdown currently used by FICO:
|Credit Score Range||Ranking|
|300–579||Poor or Bad Credit|
|No credit history||Limited/No Credit|
While you’re certainly likely get approved for credit with scores below 760, there’s no guarantee that you’ll qualify for the best deals. The best interest rates are reserved for consumers who have great credit history. So, even if you’re approved for a card you may get better terms if you have better credit.
Excellent credit scores can lead to:
If your scores are below 660, which is the generally recognized dividing line between prime and subprime, then you’re in a position to either be denied credit or find yourself saddled with very high interest rates. If you have poor or no credit, consider using secured credit cards to help build up your credit history.
Equifax, Experian and TransUnion. It’s easy to lump all three of these agencies into one group and assume that because they all do the same thing, they must be a partners. The reality, however, is that each of these three entities are separate companies — separate, competing companies. And as competitors, they do not share information or transmit data between themselves.
Each of these three agencies compile, maintain and manage roughly 220,000,000 credit files in their individual databases. There’s no law that says each of these companies has to share or cross-reference their data. And finally, because they are three competing companies, they don’t compile, code and categorize their data in exactly the same ways.
This is one reason why your credit report from Experian won’t look like your credit report from Equifax or TransUnion. And because they don’t share their data, the information the have in their databases might not be identical either. Even if your three credit reports contain the same exact account information, there’s no guarantee that it’s updated at the same time each month across the credit bureaus.
If you want to maintain high credit scores then you cannot miss payments, it’s that simple. What many consumers do not understand is just how damaging even one past due account can be to their credit scores. Credit scoring models like FICO and VantageScore are designed to predict the likelihood that a consumer will become 90 past due on any credit obligation within the next 2 years, and anything you do that suggests you’re willing to miss payments is the first step toward lower credit scores.
If you are currently past due on an account, or if your credit reports show a history of late payments on other credit obligations, then it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to figure out that the odds are much higher that you will become past due again in the future. Credit scoring models will penalize you for that elevated risk with lower scores. Lenders will use those lower scores to either deny your applications or saddle you with higher rates and more restrictive terms.
The idea that late payments damage credit scores is an easy concept for most consumers to understand. However, the fact that having too much credit card debt can also lower a consumer’s credit scores is often surprising. The assumption is that as long as you make your payments on time then all is well.
Credit card debt is capable of lowering a consumer’s credit scores almost as much as late payments. Nearly 30% of the points in your FICO and VantageScore credit scores come from the “Debt Category.” While not all of that 30% is based on credit card balances, those card balances are a significant factor within the category. Credit scoring models reward consumers for maintaining low balances relative to their credit limits.
Cosigning is by far one of the most dangerous things you can do with your credit reports and credit scores. When you cosign for a loan with someone else you are equally liable for the debt, just as if you applied for it on your own. There is no difference.
If the primary borrower missed payments on the account the cosigner’s credit reports and credit scores will suffer the consequences.
If the primary borrower charges a large balance on a credit card then, again, the cosigner’s credit reports and credit scores will suffer.
If the loan or credit card goes into default then the cosigner will be pursued for payment by the collectors as if he were the primary borrower.
If you are being asked to cosign for a loan, then the lender believes it’s too risky to do business with the primary borrower by himself.
Are you really willing to put your credit on the line for someone that a lender believes is an unacceptable credit risk? If you are then just be sure that you are fully prepared to pay for the credit obligation yourself since the odds are very high the primary borrower will not manage the account properly.
If a lender or creditor can’t get you to pay, they’ll turn the account over to collections and you’ll end up with a collection on your credit report. Collections will remain on your credit reports for 7 years. Collections are never good for your credit.
For auto, boats or motorcycle loans, the lender has the option of repossessing the collateral if you don’t pay them.
NOTE: Voluntary repossessions are just as damaging as involuntary repossessions.
If you don’t pay your mortgage, the lender will eventually foreclose in order to take back the home. Short sales, on the other hand, happen when a lender agrees to accept less than what you owe to consider the debt paid.
Regardless of what many real estate agents claim, a short sale is just as bad as a foreclosure from a credit report and credit score standpoint. Short sales are reported as charge-offs or settlements, and both are accurate because the loan wasn’t “paid in full” according to the original terms.
If you don’t pay a collection, the collector can sue you. Judgments are a public record and can be reported in your credit reports for 7 years. And depending on your state laws, judgments may also give collectors the ability to garnish wages or seize bank accounts.
Tax liens are yet another public record you’ll want to avoid. If you don’t pay the government, the debt will never go away — unpaid tax liens will remain in your credit reports indefinitely. However, withdrawn tax liens will be removed immediately by the credit bureaus.
Narratives are the textual statements that appear on your credit reports associated with credit entries. For example, an account might be listed as “partial payment plan.” The data about an account on a credit report may seem neutral, but lenders consider language like this a red flag.
Generally when a credit card is reissued the lender will report the “date opened” on the new account as the date of the original opening. The credit limit and balance on the newly reissued account will likely be the same as the original account.
If these data points are the same there will be no impact to the consumer’s credit scores. There is a possibility, albeit slight, that a newly reissued credit card might have a brand new “date opened.” If that happens then your credit scores could go down a modest amount.
When you add a new date opened to a credit report it lowers the average age of your credit history, which can lead to lower credit scores. Most credit card issuers are aware of this problem and will avoid it by keeping the same date opened throughout all the reissues of the card.
If you’ve received a new card in the mail, here are some likely reasons as to why:
In certain instances a credit card issuer will actually close a customer’s old account and open a new account in its place. These new credit cards are often referred to as “reissued” cards. The reissuing of credit card accounts is occurring much more commonly thanks to high profile data breaches.
Credit cards with new account numbers are generally reissued for one of the following reasons:
The fact that an account hasn’t been used in some time is not considered negative, or positive. Indirectly, however, an inactive credit card account can impact your credit negatively and yes, it depends on the actions taken by the issuer after you stop using the credit card account.
Credit reports do not indicate whether or not an account is active or inactive. Neither do they maintain a “scoreable” chronological history of previous balances. And even if you decide to stop using a credit card, your credit card issuer may continue to report monthly updates to the credit reporting agencies while the account is still open.
This makes it impossible to accurately determine an account’s activity just by looking at a credit report. The point here is that credit reports don’t know or indicate whether you’re using an account or not.
If you have some credit cards that you don’t use, you can keep them active by using them occasionally. In most cases, using your cards about once every 6 months should usually keep them active.
Because your credit scores are based on the information in your credit reports, and there is no definitive method for determining account activity, choosing to not use your credit cards won’t impact your credit reports or your credit scores.
What does impact your credit reports and scores, however, is how your credit card issuer reacts to your decision to stop using the account. This can make for a somewhat confusing situation, because every issuer can act as they see fit and you might not know what to expect.
When you apply for credit you give a creditor permission to pull one or more of your consumers credit reports and credit scores, normally a FICO® credit score. When the lender pulls your credit report from the credit bureaus they leave evidence behind called the credit inquiry, which is simply a record of who pulled your report and on what date.
This credit inquiry will have a negative effect on your scores, but it will usually be very small. It will stay on your credit report for two years, but it will only affect your credit scores for less than a year.
Other than the credit inquiry, there is no other information about your application. The credit card issuer’s decision to deny your application is not included in your credit reports. As such, their decision has no impact on your credit scores.
There is no exception to this rule. If it’s not on a credit report, it won’t impact your scores one way or the other. The only evidence that you applied for a credit card, or any other loan, is the credit inquiry. The only evidence that your loan was approved is the fact that eventually the account may be reported to the credit bureaus by the lender, so a lender can’t rely on this to decide whether a particular hard inquiry turned into an approval or denial.
Always paying your credit cards on time will definitely be good for your credit, but it’s not enough to have perfect credit.
There are several other factors involved in creating your credit score rather than just your history of timely payments:
Credit scores are based on the information reported in your credit reports. If you don’t have a credit report, you won’t have a credit score. That said, even if you have a credit report, it doesn’t necessarily guarantee that you’ll have a credit score. This is because credit score models have specific minimum requirements that credit report data must meet in order for a score to be generated.
If you have a credit report but aren’t able to generate a score, it typically means the information in your credit report is either too recent — which usually happens to consumers that are new to credit and just starting out; or the information isn’t current or recent enough — which usually happens to consumers that haven’t used credit in a long time or have opted to go cash only and avoid credit altogether.
Trying to obtain a credit score in either of these cases would return a notice of “insufficient credit history” instead of generating an actual credit score.
To explain, let’s take a look at the minimum requirements for the FICO credit score model, the score most widely used by lenders and the score that consumers are most familiar with. In order for a FICO score to be generated, your credit report must meet the following minimum requirements:
Based on these requirements, and to help give you a better understanding, here are some examples of why you might not have a score:
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